Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society. This involves an extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing. As industrial workers' incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial investment and economic growth.
After the last stage of the Proto-industrializationthe first transformation from an agricultural to an industrial economy is known as the Industrial Revolution and took place from the midth to early 19th century in certain areas in Europe and North America; starting in Great Britain, followed by Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, and France. The " Second Industrial Revolution " labels the later changes that came about in the midth century after the refinement of the steam enginethe invention of the internal combustion enginethe harnessing of electricity and the construction of canals, railways and electric-power lines.
The invention of the assembly line gave this phase a boost. Coal mines, steelworks, and textile factories replaced homes as the place of work. By the end of the 20th century, East Asia had become one of the most recently industrialised regions of the world.
There is considerable literature on the factors facilitating industrial modernisation and enterprise development. As the Industrial Revolution was a shift from the agrarian society, people migrated from villages in search of jobs to places where factories were established.
This shifting of rural people led to urbanisation and increase in the population of towns. The concentration of labour in factories has increased urbanisation and the size of settlements, to serve and house the factory workers. Family structure changes with industrialisation. Sociologist Talcott Parsons noted that in pre-industrial societies there is an extended family structure spanning many generations who probably remained in the same location for generations.
In industrialised societies the nuclear familyconsisting of only parents and their growing children, predominates. Families and children reaching adulthood are more mobile and tend to relocate to where jobs exist. Extended family bonds become more tenuous. Nevertheless, repeated examples in history of apparently successful industrialisation Britain, Soviet Union, South Korea, China, etc. The relationships among economic growth, employment, and poverty reduction are complex. Higher productivityit is argued [ by whom?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Period of social and economic change from agrarian to industrial society. Further information: History of industrialisation. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. November Main article: Urbanisation. Main articles: Exploitation of labour and Exploitation of natural resources. This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help us clarify the article. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes. University of Chicago Press. Economics: Principles in Action. In over 50 percent of the British lived and worked in cities.
The Industrialisation of Europe —, Oxford Cambridge Educational Database.Thanks for helping us catch any problems with articles on DeepDyve. We'll do our best to fix them. Check all that apply - Please note that only the first page is available if you have not selected a reading option after clicking "Read Article".
Include any more information that will help us locate the issue and fix it faster for you. Footnotes 1. Hammond and Barbara Hammond London,p. Solon's legislation was so successful that Pericles made the conditions of naturalization harder. Cornford, Thucydides Mythistoriousp. These aliens included Phrygians, Lydiana and Syrians, as well as Greeks.
AshleyEconomic HistoryVol. Part II, p. Chardin —son of a Huguenot jeweller in Paris, made himself, by travels and residence in Persia, the chief authority on the commerce, customs and history of the East. This knowledge he put at the service of England, and represented the East India Company at Amsterdam. Fators in Economic DevelopmentLondon,pp.
Enjoy affordable access to over 18 million articles from more than 15, peer-reviewed journals. Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15, scientific journals.
See the journals in your area. Continue with Facebook. Sign up with Google. Bookmark this article.
From the smallest electronic devices to the largest vehicles, industrial methods of production have revolutionized modern life. Unfortunately, a major side effect of increased industrial production is pollution. Industrial pollution can affect the air we breathe, the water we drink, the ground we walk on and even the light we see and sounds we hear. The image of smokestacks belching black, noxious fumes into the air often comes to mind when people think of industry.
While visible air pollutants are dangerous, industrial processes also create invisible gasses that can pollute our air supply. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas used in the production of polyurethane and other plastics.
Even "light" industry can emit toxic gasses; dry-cleaning plants, for example, use perchlorethlyene, a chemical linked to liver damage, skin irritation and respiratory failure. Perchloroethylene can leak into the atmosphere when dry-cleaner workers transfer clothes from the washer to the dryer and when the dryer exhaust is vented into the air outside. Industrial processes can also contribute to water pollution. Since many industrial methods use fresh water for various purposes, industrial facilities must dispose of the toxic runoff from these methods.
The runoff frequently flows into other fresh water sources, such as rivers, lakes and groundwater wells, which local residents use for drinking and bathing. Phosphorus runoff from fertilizers used by farmers near Lake Champlain in Vermont prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to react to water pollution problems there in —and the cleanup is still in progress.
Many industrial processes also produce waste products that can have devastating effects on the health of those exposed to them. Toxic waste can be difficult to recycle and poses serious problems for disposal. Such waste products can include substances that pose biological hazards, risk exposure to radioactivity or contain chemicals that can contaminate soil and water supplies.
An ongoing river dredging project in New York's Hudson Valley seeks to remove soil contaminated with toxic PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, generated by a General Electric plant.
Industrial pollutants are not strictly limited to the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter. Industrial processes can also cause loud noises.
Noise pollution occurs when the sounds of industrial tasks impair the hearing of workers, bystanders or residents in nearby neighborhoods.An industrial estate is a place where the required facilities and factory accommodation are provided by the government to the entrepreneurs to establish their industries there.
In India, industrial estates have been utilised as an effective tool for the promotion and growth of small-scale industries. They have also been used as an effective tool to decentralise industrial activity to rural and backward areas. Industrial estates are also known by different names, e.
According to P. These are also called as conventional or composite industrial estates. These provide accommodation to a wide variety and range of industrial concerns.
This type of industrial estates is constructed for specific industrial units, which are vertically or horizontally independent. On the basis of other variants, industrial estates are classified into following three types:. In such industrial estates, only those small- scale units are housed which are ancillary to a particular large industry. Examples of such units are like one attached to the HMT, Bangalore.
Industrial units manufacturing the same product are usually housed in these industrial estates. These Industrial estates also serve as a base for expansion of small units into large units. Such types of industrial estates are constructed mainly for very small firms engaged in repair work. You must be logged in to post a comment. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.Industrialization is the process by which an economy is transformed from primarily agricultural to one based on the manufacturing of goods.
Individual manual labor is often replaced by mechanized mass productionand craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines. Characteristics of industrialization include economic growth, more efficient division of labor, and the use of technological innovation to solve problems as opposed to dependency on conditions outside human control. Industrialization is most commonly associated with the European Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Industrialization also occurred in the United States between the s and the Great Depression. The onset of the Second World War also led to a great deal of industrialization, which resulted in the growth and development of large urban centers and suburbs.
Industrialization is an outgrowth of capitalism, and its effects on society are still undetermined to some extent ; however, it has resulted in a lower birthrate and a higher average income. The Industrial Revolution traces its roots to the late 18th century in Britain.
Prior to the proliferation of industrial manufacturing facilities, fabrication and processing were generally carried out by hand in people's homes. The steam engine was a key invention, as it allowed for many different types of machinery. Growth of the metals and textiles industries allowed for the mass production of basic personal and commercial goods.
As manufacturing activities grew, transportation, finance, and communications industries expanded to support the new productive capacities. The Industrial Revolution led to unprecedented expansion in wealth and financial well being for some. It also led to increased labor specialization and allowed cities to support larger populations, motivating a rapid demographic shift. People left rural areas in large numbers, seeking potential fortunes in budding industries.
The revolution quickly spread beyond Britain, with manufacturing centers being established in continental Europe and the United States. World War II created unprecedented demand for certain manufactured goods, leading to a buildup of productive capacity.
After the war, reconstruction in Europe occurred alongside a massive population expansion in North America. This provided further catalysts that kept capacity utilization high and stimulated further growth of industrial activity.
Innovation, specialization, and wealth creation were causes and effects of industrialization in this period. The late 20th century was noteworthy for rapid industrialization in other parts of the world, notably East Asia.
China famously experienced its own industrial revolution after moving toward a more mixed economy and away from heavy central planning. Different strategies and methods of industrialization have been followed at different times and places with varying degrees of success. The Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States initially took place under generally mercantilist and protectionist government policies that fostered the early growth of industry but was later associated with a more laissez-faire or free market approach that opened markets to foreign trade as an outlet for industrial output.
In the post Second World War era, developing nations across Latin America and Africa adopted a strategy of import substituting industrializationwhich involved protectionist barriers to trade coupled with direct subsidization or nationalization of domestic industries. Nearly at the same time, parts of Europe and several East Asian economies pursued an alternative strategy of export led growth. This strategy emphasized deliberate pursuit of foreign trade to build exporting industries, and partly depended on maintaining a weak currency to make exports more attractive to foreign buyers.
In general, export-led growth has outperformed import substituting industrialization. Lastly, socialist nations of the 20th century repeatedly embarked on various deliberate, centrally planned programs of industrialization almost entirely independent of either domestic or foreign trade markets.
While these efforts did re-orient the respective economies toward a more industrial base and an increase in output of industrial commodities, they were also accompanied by harsh government repression, deteriorating living and working conditions for workers, and even widespread starvation.
For related reading, see " Is Industrialization Good for the Economy? Monetary Policy.
Industrial Revolution and the Working Class
Wealth Management. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Economy Economics. What Is Industrialization?
Key Takeaways Industrialization is a transformation away from an agricultural- or resource-based economy, toward an economy based on mass manufacturing.Debate 1: The Industrial Revolution in England from the 18th to the 19th century was a benefit to the English working class.
We learned that industrial production increased tremendously, bringing wealth and power to Great Britain throughout the 19th century. But we have yet to explore the effects of industrialization on society, on the daily living and the working conditions of common people and the environment. What was life like for the average industrial worker?
Was living in a new industrial city and working in a factory an improvement over life in the countryside? Did the new factory life change for the better the roles of family members, including women and children? Were people healthier? In general, did the Industrial Revolution improve life for most people? Since the Industrial Revolution was so new at the end of the 18th century, there were initially no laws to regulate new industries. For example, no laws prevented businesses from hiring seven-year-old children to work full time in coal mines or factories.
No laws regulated what factories could do with their biohazard waste. Free-market capitalism meant that the government had no role in regulating the new industries or planning services for new towns. And those who controlled the government liked it that way—only a small minority of people, the wealthiest, could vote in England at this time. So during the first phase of the Industrial Revolution, British society became the first example of what happens in a country when free-market capitalism has no constraints.
What were the working conditions like during the Industrial Revolution? Since population was increasing in Great Britain at the same time that landowners were enclosing common village lands, people from the countryside flocked to the towns and the new factories to get work. This resulted in a very high unemployment rate for workers in the first phases of the Industrial Revolution. As a result, the new factory owners could set the terms of work because there were far more unskilled laborers, who had few skills and would take any job, than there were jobs for them.
And since the textile industries were so new at the end of the 18th century, there were initially no laws to regulate them. Desperate for work, the migrants to the new industrial towns had no bargaining power to demand higher wages, fairer work hours, or better working conditions. Worse still, since only wealthy people in Great Britain were eligible to vote, workers could not use the democratic political system to fight for rights and reforms. In andthe British Parliament passed the Combination Acts, which made it illegal for workers to unionize, or combine, as a group to ask for better working conditions.
Many of the unemployed or underemployed were skilled workers, such as hand weavers, whose talents and experience became useless because they could not compete with the efficiency of the new textile machines. For the first generation of workers—from the s to the s—working conditions were very tough, and sometimes tragic. Most laborers worked 10 to 14 hours a day, six days a week, with no paid vacation or holidays and each industry had safety hazards too. Under such dangerous conditions, accidents on the job occurred regularly.
Life in the factory was most challenging for the first generation of industrial workers who still remembered the slower and more flexible pace of country life. Workers could not wander over to chat with their neighbors or family as they would have done while working in the country.
They could not return to the village during harvest time to help their families, unless they wanted to lose their jobs. A few workers were able to improve their lot by going into business for themselves or winning a job as a supervisor, but the majority saw very little social mobility. As workers migrated from the country to the city, their lives and the lives of their families were utterly and permanently transformed.
For many skilled workers, the quality of life decreased a great deal in the first 60 years of the Industrial Revolution. Skilled weavers, for example, lived well in pre-industrial society as a kind of middle class. They tended their own gardens, worked on textiles in their homes or small shops, and raised farm animals.
They were their own bosses. But, after the Industrial Revolution, the living conditions for skilled weavers significantly deteriorated. They could no longer live at their own pace or supplement their income with gardening, spinning, or communal harvesting.The above definition is too broad and includes differences even between groups of workmen and employers engaged in an industry. However, in practice, industrial disputes mainly relate to the difference between the workmen and the employers.
Dispute differs from discipline and grievance. While discipline and grievance focus on individuals, dispute focuses on collectivity of individuals. In other words, the test of industrial dispute is that the interest of all or majority of workmen is involved in it.
The dispute must affect a large number of workmen who have a community of interest and the rights of these workmen must be affected as a class. The dispute must be taken up either by the industry union or by a substantial number of workmen.
TYPES OF INDUSTRIALIZATION (Note)
According to Section 2A of the Industrial Disputes Act,a workman has a right to raise an industrial dispute with regard to termination, discharge, dismissal, or retrenchment of his or her service, even though no other workman or any trade union of workman or any trade union of workmen raises it or is a party to the dispute. Strikes: Strike is the most important form of industrial disputes.
A strike is a spontaneous and concerted withdrawal of labour from production.What is Industry & Types of Industries ? Urdu / Hindi
Depending on the purpose, Mamoria et. These strikes are generally aimed against the employers with whom the dispute exists. They may include the form of a stay-away strike, stay-in, sit-down, pen-down or tools- down, go-slow and work-to-rule, token or protest strike, cat-call strike, picketing or boycott. In this form of strike, the pressure is applied not against the employer with whom the workmen have a dispute, but against the third person who has good trade relations with the employer.
However, these relations are severed and the employer incurs losses. This form of strike is popular in the USA but not in India. The reason being, in India, the third person is not believed to have any locus standi so far the dispute between workers and employer is concerned. General and political strikes and bandhs come under the category of other strikes:. Lock-out is the counter-part of strikes.
Lock-out is the weapon available to the employer to shut-down the place of work till the workers agree to resume work on the conditions laid down by the employer.
Lock-out is common in educational institutions also like a University.